### Learnability of Adjuncts

Fowlie, Meaghan. 2015. Learnability of adjuncts. Dissertation chapter 6.

- includes context free languages with finite kernel and context properties
- dissertation chapter pdf

Fowlie, Meaghan. 2014. Learning Adjuncts. In *Connectedness: papers
by and for Sarah VanWagenen. *UCLA Working Papers in
Linguistic 18. Eds: Carson Schutze and Linnaea Stockall.

**Abstract:**

- Human languages include adjuncts, which are grammatically optional elements. Some adjuncts can also be repeated indefinitely. I consider four learnable classes of languages and ask whether these classes include optional and repeated elements, and what input a learner requires in order to generalise from finite to indefinite repetition.

**Keywords:** adjunct, adjective, optionality, repetition, learnability, PDFA, 0-reversible, n-gram, substitutable context free

**Conclusions:**

- N-gram learners:
- For an n-gram learner to learn a language with a string
*x*that can be repeated indefinitely in some context, the learner must encounter, in that context,*x, xx, xxx,...*up to*n*divided by the length of*x*, +2,*x*'s.

- For an n-gram learner to learn a language with a string

- 0-reversible learners:
- For a 0-reversible learner to learn a language with a string
*x*that is optional and can be repeated indefinitely in some context, the learner must encounter, in that context,*n x*'s and*n+1 x*'s for some*n*. For example, if the learner encounters*The red red red rose*and*The red red red red rose*, it will conclude not only that, say,*The red red red red red red rose*is grammatical, but also that*The rose*is.

*b*is optional; merging states with common suffixes makes it repeatable. - For a 0-reversible learner to learn a language with a string

- Substitutable context free learners:
- Just like for 0-reversible learners, for a substitutable learner to learn a language with a string
*x*that is optional and can be repeated indefinitely in some context, the learner must encounter, in that context,*n x*'s and*n+1 x*'s for some*n*.

- Just like for 0-reversible learners, for a substitutable learner to learn a language with a string

- Clark & Thollard's PDFA learner
- Repetition and optionality are both learnable
- No mutual entailment in normal cases

**Other presentations:**

**BibTeX:**

@incollection{fowlie2014learning, title={Learning Adjuncts}, author={Meaghan Fowlie}, booktitle={Connectedness: papers by and for {S}arah {V}an{W}agenen} series={UCLA Working Papers in Linguistics}, editor={Carson Schutze and Linnaea Stockall} volume={18}, pages={}, year={2014} }